Argentina and the United States 1810-1960

By Harold F. Peterson

Hardcover : 9780873950107, 627 pages, June 1964

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Table of contents



I. Two American Peoples in 1810: Similarities


II. Revolution in Buenos Aires: Roots of American Interest, 1810-1816
Revolution in Buenos Aires - Dispatch of the First American Agents - The Policy of the United Provinces - American Offspring Resist Mother Europe - Independence of the United Provinces

III. Growing Pains of a Young Nation: Challenges to American Neutrality, 1815-1817
Professed Neutrality - An Unauthorized Loan - An Unauthorized Treaty - A Discredited Consul

IV. The South American Mission: Investigation and Nonrecognition, 1817-1818
The South American Mission - Commissioners and Their Instructions - Inspection of the United Provinces - Reports and Disagreement - Effects upon Recognition - International Reactions

V. Quest of Diplomatic Recognition: Perpetuation of American Neutrality, 1817-1819
Pueyrredon Sends An Agent - Clay Crusades for Recognition - The Agent Crusades for Recognition - The United Provinces Send a Consul General - Proposals of Bilateral Recognition

VI. Anarchy and Order in Argentina: Recognition at Last, 1819-1824
Further Postponement of Recognition - A Season of Anarchy in Argentina - Clay Renews His Crusade - The United States Renews Investigation - John M. Forbes Undertakes a Mission - Clay's Final Crusade - Forbes's Defense of American Rights - Recognition a Legal Reality - A Minister Is Sent to Buenos Aires - A Minister Is Sent to Washington

VII. Protection of American Interests: Vexations of a Diplomat, 1823-1831
The Monroe Doctrine and the United Provinces - Anglo-American Commercial Rivalry - The Flour Tariff Controversy - The Argentine-Brazilian War - The Question of Claims - Forbes and Internal Politics


VIII. The Falkland Islands: A Diplomatic Incident and the Aftermath, 1831-1960
Argentina Inherits the Falklands - Seizure of American Ships - The Lexington Retaliates - Reaction in Buenos Aires and in Washington - Jacksonian Diplomacy on Paper - Jacksonian Diplomacy in Action - Great Britain Fills a Vacuum - The Sequel: A Decade Later - The Sequel: A Half-Century Later - The Sequel: A Century Later

IX. Vortex of International Politics: Foreign Intervention, 1838-1850
Geography and Politics in the Plata Valley - Interference of the French, 1838-1840 - Beginnings of Anglo-French Interposition - Renewal of Diplomatic Relations - The Voorhees Affair - American Agents Protest the Blockades - Abortive Attempts to Mediate - Reactions in the United States - Reactions in Argentina - Last Phases of the Intervention

X. The Beginnings of Commerce: Trade and Navigation under Handicaps, 1824-1870
Fluctuations in Trade - A New Government and New Treaties - Dual Governments in Argentina - The Yancey Mediation - The Growth of Trade and Related Interests


XI. Imbroglio in Paraguay: Imprudence of American Agents, 1853-1860
An Unratified Treaty - The Imprudence of a Consul - The Affair of the Water Witch - Pierce Conciliates; Buchanan Threatens - Urquiza and the Settlement - Satisfaction with the Settlement

XII. The Paraguayan War: Defense of Diplomatic Rights, 1865-1870
Origins of the Paraguayan War - Minister vs. Admiral - Combatants, Neutrals, and Internatinal Law - Stiffening Policy of the United States - The Minister Reaches His Post - Resignation and Exit - A New Minister and His Recall - A Propaganda Battle

XIII. The Paraguayan War: Mediation and Arbitration, 1864-1878
The First Proposals of Mediation - Procrastination and Refusal - American Insistence and Latin Resentment - Final Failure - The Question of Boundaries - Argentine-Paraguayan Differences, 1872-1876 - The Arbitration of President Hayes


XIV. Nations in Midstream: Ferment and Unity in Two Republics, 1860-1880
Influences on Policy Trends: The Past - Ferment and National Unity - Sarmiento, Link Between Republics - Argentine Consolidation and Expansion - Influences on Policy Trends: The Future

XV. The Expansion of Commerce: New Direction and Old Barriers, 1871-1914
Sluggish Growth to the Mid-Nineties - Real Barriers and Ineffective Countermeasures: Tariffs - Other Barriers and Countermeasures - Rocketing Growth to World War I - New Direction and Old Barriers

XVI. Partnership in Peaceful Settlement: Argentine Boundaries, 1878-1899
The Record of Peaceful Collaboration - The Ministers Osborn and the Chilean Boundary - President Cleveland and the Brazilian Boundary - Minister Buchanan and the Puna de Atacama

XVII. Partnership in Peaceful Settlement: Conflicting Doctrines and Cooperative Actions, 1900-1914
Peace Doctrine and Peace Machinery - The United States Assists Argentina - The United States and Argentina Assist Others - Argentina Assists the United States

XVIII. Rivalry in Inter-American Affairs: Pan Americanism in Peacetime, 1889-1910
Argentine-American Roots of Pan-Americanism - The Washington Conference and Its Sequel - The Mexico City Conference - and After - The Rio de Janerio Conference - "Battleship Diplomacy" - The Buenos Aires Conference


XIX. World War I: Neutrality and Belligerency, 1914-1918
Legations Become Embassies: Naon and Stimson - The United States and Argentina Test Neutrality - American Belligerency and Argentine Neutrality - Neutral Argentine Salutes the American Fleet - German Submarines, Argentine Ships, and Luxburg - Argentine Economic Aid to the Allies - Complications of Economic Warfare - Benevolent Neutrality Pays

XX. Rivalry in Inter-American Affairs: Pan Americanism in Wartime, 1910-1918
Pan Americanism vs. Latin Americanism - Argentina and Wilson's Pan American Pact - Argentine and the International High Commission - The United States and Irigoyen's Latin American Conference - Ambassador Naon: The End of a Mission

XXI. The Rise and Fall of Commerce: Business During War, Boom, and Depression, 1914-1939
Expansion of Argentine Prosperity - Growth of Two-Way Trade - Causes of Growth: Sequel to War - Improved Intelligence - Reduction of Barriers - Americans Invest in Argentina - Argentina Borrows in the United States - Obstacles to Growth: Tariff Walls and Sanitary Embargoes - Anglo-American Rivalry - Depression and the Fall of Trade - Radicals and Republicans in Conflict - Conservatives and Democrats in Conflict

XXII. Rivalry in Inter-American Affairs: Reluctant Partners in Pan Americanism, 1919-1939
Argentina, the League, and the Monroe Doctrine - The Santiago Conference - Boundaries and Other Hemisphere Problems - Havana: Pueyrredon vs. Hughes - Shifts in Three Governments - Montevideo: Hull and Saavedra Lamas - War and Peace in the Gran Chaco - Buenos Aires: Roosevelt, Hull, and Saavedra Lamas - Lima: Cantila and Hull

XXIII. World War II: Neutrality and Belligerency, 1939-1943
Argentine and American Commitments to Their Neighbors - Inter-American Neutrality and Security - Hemisphere Security and Argentine Indecision - A Trade Agreement at Last - American Belligerency and Argentine Nonbelligerency - The Beginnings of Coercion

XXIV. World War II and After: Coercion of a Reluctant Ally, 1943-1947
The Army Revolt of June 4, 1943 - Argentina Breaks Relations - Secretary Hull and the GOU - British Foils Hull's Hopes - Chapultepec and San Francisco - Braden vs. Peron - "Peron o Braden!" - Messersmith and Truman Make Peace with Peron

XXV. Cold War in the Americas: Rivalry for Hemisphere Leadership, 1947-1955
Peron's Program at Home - Truman's Program in the Hemisphere - Peron's Program in the Hemisphere - Truman's Policy Toward Argentina - Peron Blows Hot and Cold - The Eisenhower-Dulles Policy

XXVI. A Proud Nation in Distress: The End of Peron and the Beginning of Reconstruction, 1955-1960
Accumulating Discontent - The Fall of the Despot - Military Guardians of the State - The Return of Civilian Government - The Road to Economic Recovery

XXVII. Two American Nations in 1960: Contrasts


Appendix A. Argentine Ministers of Foreign Relations

Appendix B. Argentine Representatives at Washington

Appendix C. United States Representatives at Buenos Aires




Dr. Peterson's book is the first, in English or Spanish, to encompass the entire sweep of Argentine-American relations from the time of Argentina's revolt against Spain in 1810 to the close of its 150th year of independence. Through comprehensive analysis and narrative, this study illuminates one of the most enigmatic areas of Western Hemisphere relationships.

From what would seem to be a bewildering array of incidents, Professor Peterson isolates the basic undercurrents which mold Argentine policies. Internally, Argentina's path to stability is shown to be marred by developing social stratification and conflict, economic mismanagement, and the deep uncertainty of shifts from dictatorship to democracy. Internationally, the germs of discord with the United States are found in nationalism, anticolonialism, desire for hemispheric leadership, and economic competition. Discussed, too, are the fascinating, crucial weaknesses and errors of human leadership in both countries.

Argentina and the United States 1810–1960 makes an important contribution to an understanding of current, as well as historical, affairs: it greatly helps to explain why in the twentieth century the government and people of the United States frequently face an "Argentine problem. "

Harold F. Peterson, Professor of History at the State University College at Buffalo, was born in Galesburg, Illinois, in 1900. After being graduated from Knox College, he went into teaching, on both college and high school levels, taking time out to gain his master's degree in 1927 from the University of Minnesota and his Ph. D. in 1933 from Duke University. During World War II, he served in the Military Intelligence Division and as Assistant Secretary, Joint Intelligence Committee, of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He was awarded the War Department Staff Citation. Following the war, he rejoined the faculty of the State University College at Buffalo.

With Watt Stewart, Dr. Peterson wrote Builders of Latin America (1942), which was translated and published in Spanish and Portuguese. His articles and book reviews have been published in periodicals in the United States, Argentina, and England.