Improving Energy Efficiency in Buildings

By Dennis Landsberg & Ronald Stewart

Paperback : 9780873954525, 321 pages, June 1980
Hardcover : 9780873954006, 321 pages, June 1980

Alternative formats available from:

Table of contents


Section I.
Why are we in an energy crisis?
Future availability and cost of energy
In light of the present energy situation, what can be done to reduce building energy consumption?
Where to begin
Instructions for compilation of Annual Energy Use Profile
What is an energy audit?
Classes of energy audits
Conducting the energy audit: some common-sense tips for walk-through inspections

Section II.
Overview: Where does the energy go?
A. The building structure
Interior surfaces
Exterior surfaces
Calculation of heat gain or loss per square foot
Calculation of heat gain or loss for a surface
Energy loss/gain from infiltration
The psychrometric chart
Determination of infiltration CFM
Solar radiation
Solar gain through windows

B. Building energy systems
HVAC systems
The laws of thermodynamics
HVAC energy consumption
Heat gain - miscellaneous equipment
Lighting system
Building Zones
Perimeter zones
Interior zones
Domestic hot water
Efficiency of domestic hot water system
Miscellaneous equipment
Phase balancing

C. Human factors
Business hours
Entering and exiting the building
HVAC controls and thermostats
Windows and shades
Demand charges
Janitorial services
Distribution of occupants

Section III.
Advanced energy auditing techniques
Establishing energy consumption guidelines
The energy reduction program
Who should perform an energy audit?
What type of energy audit?
Using a computer model
The on-site inspection
What to bring to an on-site inspection
What to look for during an on-site inspection
Energy conservation options
Preliminary analysis of retrofit options

Section IV.
Using energy audits for design/operation modifications: energy and economics
Economic Analysis
Phase I: A simplified economic analysis adapted to hand calculations
Phase II: Computerized energy and economic analysis; description of computer programs and relative costs
Computer inputs
A. Geography and weather verification
B. The building system
C. Economic
A computer based economic analysis

Section V.
Retrofit guidelines
Priorities vs. budgetary restrictions
Energy conservation as an ongoing program
A final note


Appendix A. Energy Basics
(1) Glossary of terms
(2) Unit conversions
(3) Degree day data for the United States
(4) Description of HVAC systems
(5) Insulating values for materials and sample wall sections
(6) Graphics for use in estimating energy consumption

Appendix B. Alternate Energy Systems
(1) Solar energy systems
(a) Active solar systems
(b) Passive solar systems
(c) Solar electricity generation
(2) Wind energy systems
(3) Total energy systems
(4) Storage systems
(a) Storing "heat" or "cool"
Liquid storage
Rock storage
(b) Using changes of phase to store energy
(c) Producing electricity and storing it in batteries
(d) Potential energy storage
(e) Kinetic energy storage
(f) Chemical energy storage

Appendix C. Energy Reclamation Systems
(1) Rotary heat exchangers
(2) Air to air heat exchangers
(3) Air water heat pumps
(4) Refrigeration recovery systems
(5) Run-around systems
(6) Heat pipes
(7) Shell and tube heat exchangers
(8) Double bundle condenser systems
(9) Light recovery systems
(10) Methane generators

Appendix D. Control Systems for Energy Conservation
(1) Demand limiting
(2) Load shedding
(3) Enthalpy controls
(4) Temperature controls
(5) Lighting controls
(6) Other uses of control systems

Appendix E. Life Cycle Costing and Comparative Economics
(1) Value analysis
(2) Life cycle costing
(3) Zero base budgeting

Appendix F. Energy Audit Forms and Methodology
Energy audit report instruction
Energy audit report


Intended for practical application, this book provides a guide for reducing energy consumption in those buildings that were constructed when the cost of construction, not the cost of operation, was of primary concern. Now that the "Golden Age of Energy" is over, the heating, lighting, and ventilation systems of these buildings must be adapted to present and future economic circumstances.

Landsberg and Stewart approach the problem of reducing energy consumption in these buildings by providing users of this book with solutions ranging from simple measures that cost nothing to complex modifications that must be given a cost-benefit analysis.

The appendixes define energy basics for those who have little or no engineering background; evaluate alternative energy systems; and analyze the basic economic decisions of making changes in a building's energy consumption. The sample forms used for energy audits of buildings in New York State that can be adapted for use in other states and for private buildings are also included.

Dennis Landsberg is Vice President for Energy Analysis of W. S. Fleming and Associates, Inc. He has been an energy consultant to the U. S. Department of Energy and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Under subcontract to the New York State Energy Office he developed energy audit workbooks for local government buildings, and he has been employed by numerous private businesses to conduct energy audits. Ronald Stewart is Associate Director of the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center of the State University of New York at Albany. He has been an energy consultant to the New York State Legislature, William S. Fleming & Associates, and to numerous private businesses.