Introduction to Japanese Tea Ritual, An

By Jennifer L. Anderson

Paperback : 9780791407509, 348 pages, September 1991
Hardcover : 9780791407493, 348 pages, September 1991

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Table of contents



1. The Nature of Tea Ritual


Putting This Research in Context
Some Fundamental Ideas About Tea Ritual
About This Book


Part I: The History of Chanoyu

2. The Beginning of the Road


The Religious Components of Chinese Tea Ritual
Assessing Chinese Tea Ritual


3. Tea Comes To Japan


Early Japanese Contact with Tea
Eisai, Rinzai Zen, and Tea
Tea Competitions
Further Zen Influences on Tea
Noami's Attempt to Reconcile Zen Tea with the Tea of the Elites
Murata Shuko Introduces the Wabi-Style
A Brief Review of Japanese Tea Ritual Through the Ashikaga Era


4. The Samurai and the Merchant Tea Masters


Joo Establishes the Sakai School
The Era of Sen Rikyu


5. Sen Rikyu's Achievements in Tea


Sources of Information
Rikyu's Contribution to Tea Philosophy
Rikyu As a Teacher
Rikyu in Retrospect


6. Sen Rikyu's Legacy


Tea As An Adaptive Mechanism
Hideyoshi's Final Years
Establishing the Sen Family Schools of Tea
Tea During the Early Tokugawa Period
Tea in the Late Edo Period


Part II: Organization in the Tea World

7. Tea School Structure


Historical Influences on Sen Family Structure
Ie, Dozoku, and Iemoto Defined
Urasenke as Ie
Urasenke in the Context of the Dozoku
The Iemoto
The Utility of Family-Dominated Tea Schools


8. Learning the Grammar of Tea Ritual


The Master-Disciple Relationship
Temae: Specific Tea Procedures
The Main Classes of Tea Gatherings
Seven Principle Types of Chaji
The Yearly Cycle of Tea


Part III: A Model Shogo Chaji

9. Behind the Scenes


Examining a Model Chaji from the Structuralist Perspective
Preliminary Preparations for Chaji


10. The Event Begins


The Guests Arrive
Symbolism in Traditional Clothing and Accessories for Tea
Machiai, Koshikake Machiai, and Outer Roji


11. Physical Aspects of the Ritual Environment


The Inner Roji
Teahouse Architecture
Viewing the Tokonoma and Utensil Area
The Tearoom as Cognitive Model


12. Shoiri-The First Half og the Chaji


Exchanging Greetings
The Kaiseki Meal
Shozumi--The First Charcoal Preparation
Omogashi--The Main Sweets


13. The Break and the Return to the Tearoom


Reflecting on Shoiri, The First Half of the Tea Ritual
Nakadachi--The Middle Break
Tea Flowers and Their Containers
Viewing Utensils Used for Koicha


14. Thick Tea Preparation


Koicha Begins
Preparing and Drinking Thick Tea
The Guests Ask To See the Utensils


15. The Preparation of Thin Tea


Gozumi--The Second Charcoal Temae
Usucha--The Thin Tea Portion of the Chaji


16. Interpreting Tea Ritual


The Objectives of Tea Ritual
The Four Integral Ordering Principles of Chado
Integrating Tea into Daily Life
Tea in a Cultural Context
Tea for the Twenty-first Century


The Temae Appendix

The Toriawase Appendix



Tea Bibliography


English Language Sources
Japanese Language Sources


Japanese Culture Biblography

Selected General Bibliography



Figure 11. 1
Figure 16. 1


Enchanting and enigmatic, chanoyu (Japanese tea ritual) has puzzled western observers since the sixteenth century. Here is a book written by a tea practitioner that explains why over twenty million modern Japanese — and a small but dedicated group of non-Japanese — follow "The Way of Tea. " Meticulously researched, An Introduction to Japanese Tea Ritual is clearly written and illustrated, and includes an extensive glossary.

Jennifer L. Anderson earned a Ph. D. from Stanford University in Anthropology, and holds a Hikitsugi certificate from the Urasenke tea school.


"It provides a helpful overview of chanoyu practice for western readers by putting emphasis on the traditional meanings of tea with sensitivity to religious and cultural aspects. This book will help to demystify chanoyu and correct many one-sided impressions. It shows that chanoyu can be studied anthropologically and places the traditional practice of chanoyu clearly within the iemoto system in Japan. And it gives to the general reading public an accurate description of what actually goes on in a formal tea gathering, together with some indication of the rich associations in Japanese traditional culture that are called up by the various symbols and activities. " — Theodore M. Ludwig, Valparaiso University

"It's the first systematic anthropological work done on chado in the English language. It shows solid grounding in some of the most formative, as well as the latest, methodological works. Her grasp, particularly linguistically, of Japanese sources is commendable. " — T. James Kodera, Wellesley College