A Culture of Sufism

Naqshbandis in the Ottoman World, 1450-1700

By Dina Le Gall

Subjects: Middle East Studies, Islam, History Of Religion
Series: SUNY series in Medieval Middle East History
Paperback : 9781438448725, 297 pages, January 2013
Hardcover : 9780791462454, 297 pages, December 2004

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Table of contents


Note on Transliteration


Part One: Dissemination

1. From Transoxania to the Ottoman Lands


The Birth of a Tariqa: From Khwajagan to Naqshbandiyya
Agents of Transmission
In the Shadow of Safavid Persecution
Safavid Power and Changing Patterns of Communications


2. Istanbul


Establishing a Presence
Spiritual Lines and Continuity
Tekkes and Institutional Arrangements
Penetrating Society
Waqf-Making and the Women of the Tariqa


3. Anatolia and the Balkans


Capital and Province, Town and Countryside
The Balkans
A Charismatic Shaykh and His Demise


4. Arabia


Constraints on Early Transmission
An Indian Transplant and His Arabian Disciples
Teaching in Multiple Tariqas


Part Two: The Politics and Culture of a Tariqa

5. Devotional Practice and the Construction of Orthodoxy


"Acting with Strictness"
Sobriety in Devotional Practice
Communicating with the "Friends of God"
Teaching Ibn al-'Arabi
Bakri Genealogy: From a Spiritual to a Political Marker?


6. Politics of Sunnism, Battles over Orthodoxy


Ahrarian Politics and the Ottoman Environment
"Bringing the Heterodox to Heel"
A Thesis Revisited
A Naqshbandi Kadizadeli


7. Organizational and Cultural Modes


"The Shadow of the Shaykh is Better than Dhikr"
Bequeathing Spiritual Authority and Sending off Khalifas
Tariqa, Silsila, and Pride of Affiliation
Travel, Language, and the Tariqa as Interregional Network







Unearths the history of the Naqshbandiyya, one of the most widespread and enduring Sufi brotherhoods.


A Culture of Sufism opens a window to a new understanding of one of the most prolific and enduring of all the Sufi brotherhoods, the Naqshbandiyya, as it spread from its birthplace in central Asia to Iran, Anatolia, Arabia, and the Balkans between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. Drawing on original sources and carefully aware of the power of modern paradigms to obscure, Le Gall portrays a Naqshbandiyya that was devotionally sober yet not demysticized and rigorously orthodox without being politically activist. She argues that the establishment of this brotherhood in Ottoman society was not the product of political instrumentality. Instead the Naqshbandī dissemination is best explained in reference to a series of little-appreciated organizational and cultural modes such as proclivity to long-distance travel, independence from specialized Sufi institutions, linguistic adaptability, commitment to writing and copying, and the practice of bequeathing spiritual authority to non-kin.

Dina Le Gall is Assistant Professor of History at Lehman College, The City University of New York.