Aristotelian Logic

By William T. Parry & Edward A. Hacker

Subjects: Aristotle
Paperback : 9780791406908, 545 pages, September 1991
Hardcover : 9780791406892, 545 pages, September 1991

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Table of contents


I. Basic Concepts of Logic

1. Arguments and Validity
2. Propositions
3. Logical Form and Counterexamples
4. Terms
5. Definition
6. Division and Classification

II. Basic Concepts of Aristotelian Logic

7. Standard Categorical Propositions
8. The Traditional Square of Opposition
9. Existential Presuppositions of Aristotelian Logic
10. Distribution of Terms in Categorical Propositions
11. Conversion

III. Immediate Inferences Not Needed for Standard Syllogism

12. Negative Terms
13. Obversion
14. Contraposition
15. Inversion and Partial Inversion
16. Tables of Immediate Inferences
17. Relations
18. Reversible and Non-Reversible Inferences

IV. Aristotelian Logic: Mediated Inferences

19. The Standard Syllogism: Definitions
20. A Deductive System of the Standard Syllogism
21. Rules of the Standard Syllogism
22. Chain Arguments Including Sorites
23. Reducing the Number of Terms in Arguments
24. Singular Propositions
25. Standardizing Categorical Propositions
26. The Enthymeme
27. The Antilogism for N-Pair Arguments
28. The Hypothetical Syllogism
29. The Disjunctive Syllogism
30. The Dilemma

V. Informal Fallacies

31. Proof and Fallacies
32. Linguistic Fallacies
33. Contextual Fallacies
34. Illicit Appeals

VI. Transition to Symbolic Logic

35. From Aristotelian to Symbolic Logic



This book provides detailed treatment of topics in traditional logic: the theory of terms; the theory of definition; the informal fallacies; and division and classification.

Aristotelian Logic teaches techniques for solving semantic problems — problems caused by confusion over terminology. It teaches the theory of definition — the different kinds of definition and the criteria by which each is judged. It also teaches that definitions are like tools in that some are better suited for a particular task than others.

Several chapters are devoted to informal fallacies. A new classification is given for them, and the concept of proof is presented, without which some of the traditional informal fallacies cannot be explained adequately. Another chapter is devoted to division and classification, which occurs in all of the sciences.

Other topics covered include the square of opposition, immediate inferences, and the syllogistic and chain arguments.

William T. Parry was Professor of Philosophy at State University of New York at Buffalo. Edward A. Hacker is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Northeastern University.


"It is surely the most complete and competent treatment of Aristotelian logic for the general student. The book is extremely clear and interesting. It is manifestly the work of experienced teachers of logic who are able to anticipate and preclude the misunderstandings and questions typical of the beginning student. " — Peter T. Manicas, Queens College, City University of New York and the University of Hawaii, Honolulu