Bilingualism through Schooling

Cross-Cultural Education for Minority and Majority Students

By Arnulfo G. Ramirez

Subjects: English Education
Paperback : 9780873958929, 290 pages, June 1985
Hardcover : 9780873958912, 290 pages, June 1985

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Table of contents



1. Linguistic Diversity and Bilingual Education


Language-Nation Typologies
Societal Bilingualism
Language Diversity in the United States
Language Maintenance and Language Shift
Linguistic Assimilation
International Dimensions of Bilingual Education
Bilingual Education Goals
Bilingual Education and Global Perspectives
Suggested Readings


2. Types of Bilingual Education Programs


Bilingual Education and National Language Goals
Bilingual Education Models
Bilingual Instructional Models
Compensatory versus Enrichment Bilingual Programs
Bilingual Education and English as a Second Language (ESL) Program Designs
Second Language Immersion Instructional Models
Suggested Readings


3. Assessment of Bilingual Proficiency


Conceptions of Bilingual Proficiency
Language Dominance
Language Dominance and Bilingual Proficiency
Areas of Language Assessment
Tests of Language Skills
Linguistic Competence Tests
Communicative Competence Perspectives
Measures of Communicative Competence
Comparability of Language Tests
Suggested Readings


4. Development of Bilingual Proficiency


Language Learning in Interethnic Contexts
Individual Bilingualism and Learning Contexts
Simultaneous Bilingual Acquisition
Sequential Bilingual Acquisition
Childhood Bilingualism and Code Switching
Bilingualism Through Schooling
Suggested Readings


5. Development of Oral Proficiency in English as a Second Language


Models of Second Language Learning
Learning ESL in Bilingual Schools
Types of English Language Proficiency
Bilingual Program Models and Oral English Skills
Individual Differences and Oral English Skills
Suggested Readings


6. Development of Literary Skills in English as a Second Language


Concepts of Literacy
Literacy and Bilingual Schooling
Bilingual Reading Approaches
Reading Processes in the Second Language
Differences in Writing Abilities
Bilingualism and the Writing Process
Suggested Readings


7. Attitudes Toward Language and Cultural Groups


Language Attitudes of Teachers
Language Attitudes and the Learner
Language Attitudes and Ethnolinguistic Groups
Language Attitudes, Cultural Stereotypes, and Bilingual Schooling
Teachers' Attitudes Toward Language Varieties
Suggested Readings


8. Teaching the First and Second Languages


Developments in Language Teaching
English As a Second Language Instruction
Primary Language Instruction
Effective Teaching Strategies
Teacher-Centered Language Learning Activities
Student-Centered Language Learning Activities
Teacher Characteristics and Language Teaching
Suggested Readings


9. Discourse Processes in Bilingual Classrooms


Language in the Classroom
Instructional Approaches and Linguistic Demands
Language in Bilingual Classrooms
Teacher-Directed Lessons
Code Switching in the Classroom
Effects of Group Structures
Effective Instructional Features
Suggested Readings


10. Immersion Education Approaches


Immersion Education and Additive Bilingualism
Canadian Immersion Programs
Culver City Spanish Immersion Project
Plattsburgh French Immersion Program
Suggested Readings


11. Cognitive and Academic Aspects of Bilingualism


Pre-1960 Studies on Bilingualism
Cognitive Differences Between Monolinguals and Bilinguals
Levels of Bilingualism and Cognitive Performance
Suggested Readings


12. Bilingual Education and Language Policy


Research in Bilingual Education
Subtractive and Additive Forms of Bilingualism
Bilingual Schooling and Legislation
Bilingual Education and a National Language Policy
Bilingual Schooling and Eduational Principles
Suggested Readings




A. The Language of the Spanish/English Bilingual
B. State Bilingual Education Legislation
C. New York State Aid for Limited English Proficiency Pupils
D. Immersion and Partial Immersion Language Programs in U. S. Elementary Schools
E. Highlights of Bilingual Programs
F. Students' Opinions of Bilingual Education
G. Guidelines for the Preparation and Certification of Teachers of Bilingual-Bicultural Education





Bilingualism Through Schooling is a comprehensive survey of bilingual education. It shows how bilingual schooling can have a double impact by providing students with functional second-language competence, and also contributing to their deeper understanding of culture and history. Concerned with both ethnolinguistic minority children and majority, English-speaking pupils, the book approaches bilingualism from a variety of perspectives—linguistic, psychological, and socio-cultural. Among the many topics discussed are: goals and consequences of bilingualism, sociolinguistic contexts, language attitudes, and proficiency assessment. Ramirez explores the various types of programs and techniques used to facilitate second-language acquisition and also provides guidelines for the preparation and certification of bilingual instructors. Bibliographies are included.

Arnulfo G. Ramirez is Associate Professor of Language Education at the State University of New York at Albany.