Inoue Enryō

A Philosophical Portrait

By Rainer Schulzer

Subjects: Japanese Studies, Philosophy, Asian Religion And Philosophy, Buddhism, Comparative Philosophy
Hardcover : 9781438471877, 430 pages, February 2019
Paperback : 9781438471860, 430 pages, July 2019

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Table of contents

List of Illustrations


Part I. Toward the Eastern Capital

1. Imperial Restoration

2. Civilization and Enlightenment

3. The True Pure Land School

4. New Buddhism

5. Scientific Religion

Interlude on Occidentalism

Part II. The Love of Truth

6. A New Culture of Discussion

7. Language Modernization

8. Positive Truth

9. Tokyo University

10. The X-Club

11. Crossroads of World Philosophy

12. The Love of Truth

13. Upward Philosophy

14. In the Paradigm of Philosophy

Interlude on Enlightenment

Part III. The Protection of Country

15. The Truth and the Good

16. Man of the World

17. Education

18. Japanese Ethics and National Polity

19. Mystery Studies

20. The Philosophy Academy Incident

21. Crisis and Resignation

22. Darwinism and Empire

23. Late Life

Interlude on Progress

Part IV. The Philosophy of Buddhism

24. Not Kantian

25. Identity Realism

26. deus sive natura

27. Historical Critique

28. Living Buddhism

29. Peace of Mind

30. Religious Pragmatism

31. The Mahāyāna

32. Causality

33. Institutional Reform

Epilogue: In the Temple Garden of Philosophy

Chronological Table of Inoue Enryō’s Life
Cited Works by Inoue Enryō
Chinese Translations of Inoue Enryō’s Works
Works Cited
Glossary of Sino-Japanese Terms
Index of Names and Western Terms

The first comprehensive treatment of Inoue Enryō, a pioneer of modern Buddhism and a key figure in the reception of Western philosophy in East Asia.


Rainer Schulzer provides the first comprehensive study, in English, of the modern Japanese philosopher Inoue Enryō (1858–1919). Enryō was a key figure in several important intellectual trends in Meiji Japan, including the establishment of academic philosophy, the public campaign against superstition, the permeation of imperial ideology, and the emergence of modern Japanese Buddhism. As one of the most widely read intellectuals of his time and one of the first Japanese authors ever translated into Chinese, an understanding of Enryō's work and influence is indispensable for understanding modern East Asian intellectual history. His role in spreading the terminology of modern East Asian humanities reveals how later thinkers such as Nishida Kitarō and Suzuki T. Daisetsu emerged; while his key principles, Love of Truth and Protection of Country, illustrate the tensions inherent in Enryō's enlightenment views and his dedication to the rise of the Japanese empire. The book also presents a systematic reconstruction of what was the first attempt to give Buddhism a sound philosophical foundation for the modern world.

Rainer Schulzer is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Toyo University, Tokyo, Japan.


"…[a] timely book … Schulzer's engaging work is highly relevant for those working on modern Japanese philosophy, and should appeal more broadly to any scholar with an interest in the development of the humanities in East Asia. " — Frontiers of Philosophy in China

"This book is filled with interesting and important details about the unfolding of Enryō's life and the formation of his major works. Schulzer also develops broader themes in terms of Japan's intellectual and sociopolitical encounters with the West in light of the advent of its modern self-definition in the context of being part of a global arena for the first time. " — Steven Heine, author of From Chinese Chan to Japanese Zen: A Remarkable Century of Transmission and Transformation