Restructuring the Middle Level School

Implications for School Leaders

By Sally N. Clark & Donald C. Clark

Subjects: Education
Series: SUNY series, Middle Schools and Early Adolescents
Paperback : 9780791419229, 316 pages, March 1994
Hardcover : 9780791419212, 316 pages, April 1994

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Table of contents

List of Figures



Copyright Acknowledgments

Section I. Perspectives on the Middle Level School: Past, Present, and Future

1. Perspectives on Middle Level Education Past and Present

What is a Middle Level School?
Forces that Led to the Establishment and Rapid Growth of the Junior High School
The Evolution of Middle Level Schools
Current Middle Level School Organization and Practice

2. Middle Level Schools: The Rhetoric of Today as the Foundation for Tomorrow

How Should Middle Schools be Organized?
What Do Successful Middle Level Schools Look Like?
Why Middle Level Schools Must Change

Section II. Restructuring the Middle Level School: Building a Knowledge Base

3. Early Adolescent Development Needs and Characteristics

Early Adolescent Needs and Characteristics: A Broad Perspective
Early Adolescent Development: Specific Components
Early Adolescent Development: Implications

4. Curriculum and Assessment in Responsive Middle Level Schools

Curriculum in the Middle Level School
Curriculum and Student Assessment

5. Responsive Middle Level Programs: Interdisciplinary Teaming, Teacher Advisories, and Student Activities

Interdisciplinary Teaming
Teacher Advisory Programs
Student Activity Programs

6. Programs Which Involve Parents and Community: Parent Participation and Youth Service

Parent Involvement Programs
Youth Service Programs

Section III. Restructuring the Middle Level School: Restructuring, Leadership, and Collaboration

7. Restructuring and Middle Level Schools

What is School Restructuring?
What are the Tasks of Restructuring?
Crucial Factors Supporting Successful Middle Level Restructuring

8. Collaboration and Middle Level School Restructuring

School Cultures of Isolation and of Collaboration
Collaborative Approaches--Teacher Leadership, Decision Making, and Influence
Structuring Successful Middle Level School Collaboration
Organizing Collaboration for Strategic Planning

Section IV. Restructuring the Middle Level School: Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating the Strategic Plan

9. Developing the Restructuring Plan

Strategic Planning
Developing a Plan for Restructuring the Middle Level School
Phase I--Developing a Foundation for Restructuring
Phase II--Developing the Strategic Long-Range Plan

10. Organizing Staff Development to Facilitate School Restructuring

Some Assumptions About Staff Development
Leadership and Staff Development
Phase I--Planning the Staff Development Program
Phase II--Implementing the Staff Development Program

11. Evaluating Middle Level Programs and Practice

Purposes and Functions of Evaluation
Middle Level School Evaluation--Four Examples

Section V. Restructuring the Middle Level School: Maintaining the Climate for Change

12. Responsive Middle Level Schools: The Continuing Challenge

Maintaining the Climate of Change

Name Index

Subject Index


This book provides middle level teachers and administrators with a rich resource on restructuring schools to help young adolescents achieve intellectual, social, and emotional success. It is a comprehensive volume that describes the leadership knowledge bases, skills, processes, and attitudes necessary for successful middle level school restructuring. Major themes in the book include: trends and issues in middle level schools; characteristics of young adolescents; middle level curriculum; instruction and assessment; successful middle level school programs; leadership skills and collaborative decision-making; school restructuring; staff development; program evaluation; and maintaining a climate for change.

Sally N. Clark is Senior Lecturer and Donald C. Clark is Professor in the Department of Teaching and Teacher Education at the University of Arizona, Tucson.


"This book should be in the hands of every middle level principal in the United States!" — Thomas O. Erb, The University of Kansas, Lawrence