Changed Forever, Volume I

American Indian Boarding-School Literature

By Arnold Krupat

Subjects: Indigenous Studies, Literary Criticism, Cultural Studies
Series: SUNY series, Native Traces
Hardcover : 9781438469157, 406 pages, April 2018
Paperback : 9781438469140, 406 pages, January 2019

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Table of contents

List of Illustrations

Part I. Hopi Boarding-School Autobiographies

1. Edmund Nequatewa’s Born a Chief

2. Albert Yava’s Big Falling Snow

3. Don Talayesva’s Sun Chief

4. Polingaysi Qoyawayma’s No Turning Back

5. Helen Sekaquaptewa’s Me and Mine

6. Fred Kabotie’s Hopi Indian Artist

Part II. Navajo Boarding-School Autobiographies

7. Frank Mitchell’s Navajo Blessingway Singer

8. Irene Stewart’s A Voice in Her Tribe

9. Kay Bennett’s Kaibah

10. Stories of Traditional Navajo Life and Culture

11. George P. Lee’s Silent Courage

Appendix A The Orayvi Split
Appendix B The Navajo Autobiographical Canon
Appendix C Apache Boarding-School Autobiographies
Works Cited

The first in-depth study of a range of literature written by Native Americans who attended government-run boarding schools.


Changed Forever is the first study to gather a range of texts produced by Native Americans who, voluntarily or through compulsion, attended government-run boarding schools in the last decades of the nineteenth and the first decades of the twentieth centuries. Arnold Krupat examines Hopi, Navajo, and Apache boarding-school narratives that detail these students' experiences. The book's analyses are attentive to the topics (topoi) and places (loci) of the boarding schools. Some of these topics are: (re-)Naming students, imposing on them the regimentation of Clock Time, compulsory religious instruction and practice, and corporal punishment, among others. These topics occur in a variety of places, like the Dormitory, the Dining Room, the Chapel, and the Classroom. Krupat's close readings of these narratives provide cultural and historical context as well as critical commentary. In her study of the Chilocco Indian School, K. Tsianina Lomawaima asked poignantly, "What has become of the thousands of Indian voices who spoke the breath of boarding-school life?" Changed Forever lets us hear some of them.

Arnold Krupat is Professor Emeritus, Sarah Lawrence College and the author of many books, including "That the People Might Live": Loss and Renewal in Native American Elegy.


"Krupat's volumes, almost needless to say, constitute a vital contribution to resuscitating 'the thousands of Indian voices who spoke the breath of boarding-school life.'" — American Indian Quarterly

"…Changed Forever encourages and prepares readers to read and remember boarding-school autobiographies more accurately. Krupat offers a seemingly encyclopedic guide for students and scholars alike to deepen their engagement with this and other genres of boarding-school literatures." — MELUS

"…refreshing and challenging. Highly recommended." — American Literary History