Changed Forever, Volume II

American Indian Boarding-School Literature

By Arnold Krupat

Subjects: Indigenous Studies, Literary Criticism, Cultural Studies
Series: SUNY series, Native Traces
Ebook : 9781438480084, 436 pages, September 2020
Paperback : 9781438480060, 436 pages, July 2021
Hardcover : 9781438480077, 436 pages, September 2020
Ebook (EPUB) - Unavailable

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Table of contents

List of Illustrations


Part I: Dakota Boarding-School Autobiographies

1. Charles Eastman's From the Deep Woods to Civilization

2. Luther Standing Bear's My People, the Sioux

3. Zitkala-Sa's "Impressions of an Indian Childhood," "The School Days of an Indian Girl," and "An Indian Teacher among Indians"

4. Walter Littlemoon's They Called Me Uncivilized, Tim Giago's The Children Left Behind, Lydia Whirlwind Soldier's "Memories," and Mary Crow Dog's Lakota Woman

Part II: Ojibwe Boarding-School Autobiographies

5. John Rogers's Red World and White

6. George Morrison's Turning the Feather Around

7. Peter Razor's While the Locust Slept

8. Adam Fortunate Eagle's Pipestone: My Life in an Indian Boarding School, Dennis Banks's "Yellow Bus," and Jim Northrup's "FAMILIES—Nindanawemaaganag"

9. Edna Manitowabi's "An Ojibwa Girl in the City"

Part III: A Range of Boarding-School Autobiographies

10. Thomas Wildcat Alford's Civilization

11. Joe Blackbear's Jim Whitewolf: The Life of a Kiowa Apache Indian, and Carl Sweezy's The Arapaho Way: Memoir of an Indian Boyhood

12. Ah-nen-la-de-ni's "An Indian Boy's Story"

13. Esther Burnett Horne's Essie's Story

14. Viola Martinez, California Paiute: Living in Two Worlds

15. Reuben Snake's Your Humble Serpent

Appendix A: A Letter from Thomas Wildcat Alford, a Returned Student Formerly at Hampton Institute
Appendix B: Indian Boarding-School Students Mentioned in This Study, Vols. 1 and 2
Works Cited

The second volume of the first in-depth study of a range of literature written by Native Americans who attended government-run boarding schools.


After a theoretical and historical introduction to American Indian boarding-school literature, Changed Forever, Volume II examines the autobiographical writings of a number of Native Americans who attended the federal Indian boarding schools. Considering a wide range of tribal writers, some of them well known—like Charles Eastman, Luther Standing Bear, and Zitkala-Sa—but most of them little known—like Walter Littlemoon, Adam Fortunate Eagle, Reuben Snake, and Edna Manitowabi, among others—the book offers the first wide-ranging assessment of their texts and their thoughts about their experiences at the schools.

Arnold Krupat is Professor Emeritus, Sarah Lawrence College and the author of many books, including Changed Forever, Volume 1: American Indian Boarding-School Literature and "That the People Might Live": Loss and Renewal in Native American Elegy.


"…Krupat's Changed Forever has established a place of significance in any collection that seeks to explore knowledge, reconciliation, and the stories of boarding school histories." — Western American Literature

"Krupat's volumes, almost needless to say, constitute a vital contribution to resuscitating 'the thousands of Indian voices who spoke the breath of boarding-school life.'" — American Indian Quarterly

Praise for Changed Forever, Volume I

"Both Krupat's introduction and his analyses throughout show an impressive mastery of the field … Krupat's analytical skills truly shine … I found Changed Forever both refreshing and challenging. Highly recommended." — John Gram, author of Education at the Edge of Empire: Negotiating Pueblo Identity in New Mexico's Indian Boarding Schools